Attachment Exhibit C

This document pretains to SAT-PPL-20190321-00018 for Permitted List on a Satellite Space Stations filing.


                               2019




Spire Global, Inc.
Orbital Debris Assessment Report

MINAS Satellites


Revision History



Revision    Description of Revisions                                                 Release Date

   1        Initial Release                                                          10/13/2017

            An orbital debris risk assessment of LEMUR-2 Phase IC (with hosted
            payload) and Phase II satellites


                                                                                     02/26/2019
   2        Updated reference from “Phase II” satellites to “MINAS” satellites and
            year on cover page


   Section 1: Program Management and Mission Overview

Project Managers     Jenny Barna and George John

Mission              The purpose of the LEMUR-2 System (LEMUR-2 and MINAS satellites) is to provide high-revisit
Description          global maritime and aircraft domain monitoring data, weather data, and hosted payload
                     services.

                     This orbital debris risk assessment report (“ODAR”) covers any MINAS satellites proposed to
                     be launched by Spire Global, Inc. (“Spire”).

Foreign              None
Government
Involvement

Project              MINAS satellites are usually launched in small deployments depending on available capacity,
Milestones           quality of orbit, service and constellation replenishment needs, and risk profiles of the
                     launch vehicle and campaign.
Proposed
Launch Date          Given the potential long lead time for the instant application and state of the low-Earth orbit
                     launch market for secondary payloads, Spire is filing this application early and is not capable
Proposed             of providing launch parameters for the MINAS satellites at this time. However, it notes that
Launch Vehicles      these satellites (similar to the Phase I, IB, and IC satellites) will only deploy at orbital altitudes
                     from 385 to 650 km and inclinations ranging from equatorial to polar sun-synchronous (98
Proposed
                     degrees).
Launch Sites

Launch Vehicle       This analysis considers the range of representative orbits and includes a debris assessment
Operator             of the worst-case altitude and lifetime in order to provide the most conservative results.
                     Spire is also seeking authority to deploy from and above the International Space Station
                     (“ISS”), so that orbit is also considered.

Mission Duration     The planned operational lifetime of each MINAS satellite is 2 years following deployment
                     from the launch vehicle.

Selection of Orbit   Orbits are selected based on availability of launches, an established range of acceptable
                     deployment altitudes (385 km – 650 km), and inclinations (equatorial to polar sun-
                     synchronous (98 degrees)) that support the operational purpose of the constellation.

Potential Physical   The MINAS satellites do not have any propulsion systems to actively maintain orbital altitude.
Interference with    Therefore, their orbit will naturally decay following deployment from either the launch
Other Orbiting       vehicle or the ISS.
Objects
                     As detailed in Section 5, the probability of physical interference between the MINAS satellites
                     and other space objects complies with Requirement 4.5 of NASA-STD-8719.14A.

MINAS Satellites     Spire will add a third solar “drag” panel on any MINAS satellite bus, increasing the amount of


                                                           1


drag on its satellite and shortening the orbital lifetimes by between 0.50 and 0.75 years
(dependent on solar cycle changes) from launch at its highest orbit of 650 km. See infra § 6.

The MINAS satellite will have a nominal launch mass configuration of 4.5kg; however, the
mass capacity may be up to 6kg maximum, which accommodates potential other Spire or
hosted payload(s). Surface area and spacecraft specifications are otherwise identical. Both
nominal and maximum cases are included in this ODAR for collision risk and lifetime
analyses. See infra §§ 5-6.




                                   2


ODAR Section 2: Spacecraft Description
Physical Description:

Property                Value

Total Mass at Launch    4.5 kg nominal; 6 kg maximum

Dry Mass at Launch      4.5 kg nominal; 6 kg maximum (no propellant/propulsion system)

Form Factor             3U cubesat

COG                     <3 cm radius from geometric center


Envelope (stowed)       100 mm x 100 mm x 340.5 mm (excluding dynamic envelope)


Envelope (deployed)     1 m x 1 m x 300 mm

Propulsion Systems      None


Fluid Systems           None

AOCS                    Stabilization/pointing with 3x orthogonal reaction wheels, desaturation +
                        coarse pointing with magnetorquers, and Global Positioning System (“GPS”)
                        navigation

Range Safety /          None
Pyrotechnic Devices

Electrical Generation   Triple-junction GaAs solar panels

Electrical Storage      Rechargeable Lithium-Ion battery pack

Radioactive Materials   None




                                               3


ODAR Section 3: Assessment of Debris Released During
Normal Operations

Spire’s MINAS satellites do not release objects during deployment or operation. Therefore, Requirements
4.3-1 and 4.3-2 of NASA-STD-8719.14A are not applicable.




                                                    4


ODAR Section 4: Assessment of Spacecraft Intentional
Breakups and Potential for Explosions
Potential causes for spacecraft breakup:

MINAS satellites have no propulsion and accordingly do not carry highly volatile propellant. The only energy
sources (kinetic, chemical, or otherwise) onboard the spacecraft are a Lithium-Ion battery system and
reaction wheels. Thus, the only two plausible causes for breakup of these MINAS satellites are the
following:
     1. energy released from onboard batteries and
     2. mechanical failure of the reaction wheels.

Summary of failure modes and effects analysis of all credible failure modes, which may lead to an
accidental explosion:

The battery aboard these MINAS satellites is an 80Wh Lithium-Ion battery pack, which represents the only
credible failure mode during which stored energy is released. The main failure modes associated with
Lithium Ion batteries result from overcharging, over-discharging, internal shorts, and external shorts.

The only failure mode of the reaction wheel assemblies that could lead to creation of debris would be
breakup of the wheels themselves due to mechanical failure while operating at a high angular rate.

Risk mitigation plan:

The battery pack onboard these MINAS satellites has been designed and qualified to comply with controls /
process requirements identified in NASA Report JSC-20793 ‘Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety
Requirements’ to mitigate the chance of any accidental venting / explosion caused by the above failure
modes.

The reaction wheels on board these MINAS satellites are limited with respect to maximum rotational speed
of the wheels and are contained within a sealed compartment, thus mitigating any risk of breakup of the
wheels themselves into debris.

Detailed plan for any designed spacecraft breakup, including explosions and intentional collisions:

There is no planned breakup of the satellites on-orbit.

Rationale for all items required to be passivated that cannot be due to design:

N/A




Assessment of spacecraft compliance with Requirements 4.4-1 through 4.4-
4:

4.4-1, Limiting the risk to other space systems from accidental explosions during   COMPLIANT
deployment and mission operations while in orbit about Earth or the Moon:



                                                      5


4.4-2, Design for passivation after completion of mission operations while in   N/A
orbit about Earth or the Moon:

4.4-3, Limiting the long-term risk to other space systems from planned          N/A
breakups:

    There are no planned breakups of any of the satellites.

4.4-4, Limiting the short-term risk to other space systems from planned         N/A
breakups:

    There are no planned breakups of any of the satellites.




                                                      6


ODAR Section 5: Assessment of Spacecraft Potential for On-
Orbit Collisions
Probability for collision with objects larger than 10 cm:

The probability of a collision of any of any MINAS satellites with an orbiting object larger than 10 cm in
diameter was calculated using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (“NASA’s”) Debris
Assessment Software (“DAS”) 2.0.2 software. Table 1 below shows the risk for all orbits into which MINAS
satellites may be deployed in each of five different area/mass ratio scenarios, including a worst-case
scenario. The table shows the risk both at the expected nominal orbital dwell time and at the worst-case
dead-on-arrival orbital dwell time. ISS deployments are from in front and below the ISS, typically in a range
of 385 km to 400 km, at the time of deployment as directed by the ISS Program. Table 2 below shows a
worst-case analysis of 400 km. Certain deployments have similar inclinations but slightly different altitudes.
Where the altitude is slightly different, Spire groups the launches together under the worst-case (highest)
altitude.




                                                      7


                                                           Table 1 – MINAS Satellites
                          Collision Risk with Objects Larger Than 10 cm (Run at Worst-Case Orbit of 650 km, 98 deg)



                                     Nominal Mass Configuration (4.5 kg)                               Maximum Mass Configuration (6 kg)

                                 650 km, 98 degrees (Worst-Case Orbit)                                650 km, 98 degrees (Worst-Case Orbit)


                           Effective                                  Collision Risk                                                          Collision Risk
  Satellite Operational                       Orbital Dwell Time                       Effective Area/Mass      Orbital Dwell Time
                          Area/Mass                                   per NASA DAS                                                            per NASA DAS
           State                                   (years):                                   (m2/kg)                (years):
                            (m2/kg)                                     Analysis                                                                Analysis



Satellite Nonfunctional     0.0082                    19.7                 3 x 10-6          0.0061                    21.8                      1 x 10-5


ADCS Nonfunctional,
                            0.0140                   18.01                 4 x 10-6          0.0105                    21.8                      1 x 10-5
Partial Deploy


ADCS Nonfunctional,
                            0.0201                    14.7                 4 x 10-6          0.0151                    16.8                      1 x 10-5
Fully Deployed


Operational,                                          14.9                 4 x 10-6          0.0146
                            0.0194                                                                                     17.2                      1 x 10-5
Partial Deploy


Operational,                                          7.5                  4 x 10-6          0.0217                    14.2                      1 x 10-5
                            0.0290
Nominal




                                                                                8


                                                           Table 2 – MINAS Satellites
                             Collision Risk with Objects Larger Than 10 cm (Run at ISS Orbit of 400 km, 51.6 deg)



                                     Nominal Mass Configuration (4.5 kg)                                   Maximum Mass Configuration (6 kg)

                                       400 km, 51.6 degrees (ISS Orbit)                                          400 km, 51.6 degrees (ISS Orbit)


                           Effective                                      Collision Risk                                                            Collision Risk
  Satellite Operational                       Orbital Dwell Time                           Effective Area/Mass          Orbital Dwell Time
                          Area/Mass                                       per NASA DAS                                                              per NASA DAS
           State                                   (years):                                       (m2/kg)                    (years):
                            (m2/kg)                                         Analysis                                                                  Analysis



Satellite Nonfunctional     0.0082                     2.5                      0                0.0061                         2.7                       0


ADCS Nonfunctional,
                            0.0140                     2.0                      0                0.0105                         2.3                       0
Partial Deploy


ADCS Nonfunctional,
                            0.0201                     1.6                      0                0.0151                         1.97                      0
Fully Deployed


Operational,                                           1.6                      0                0.0146
                            0.0194                                                                                              2.0                       0
Partial Deploy


Operational,                                           1.0                      0                0.0217                         1.4                       0
                            0.0290
Nominal




                                                                                    9


Probability for collision with objects 10 cm or less:

NASA’s DAS returned a response of Compliant with Requirement 4.5-2 of NASA-STD-8719.14A in a number
of potential orbits and configurations, including a worst-case scenario of 650 km, 98 degrees.




Assessment of spacecraft compliance with Requirement 4.5-1 and 4.5-2:


4.5-1, Probability of collision with large objects:                        COMPLIANT


4.5-2, Probability of damage from small objects:                           COMPLIANT




                                                      10


 ODAR Section 6: Assessment of Spacecraft Post-Mission
 Disposal Plans and Procedures
 Description of disposal option selected:

 Following its deployment, a MINAS satellite will naturally decay until it reenters the atmosphere. Table 3
 describes the mission scenarios for which lifetime analysis of these MINAS satellites was considered and the
 effective area-to-mass ratio of the satellite in each scenario. The ratio was calculated using the external
 dimensions of the MINAS satellite and deployed arrays. Note that Spire will add a third solar “drag” panel
 on any MINAS satellite bus, increasing the amount of drag on its satellite and shortening the orbital lifetimes
 (compared to its Phase I satellites).1

 For purposes of Section 6, drag area from deployed antennas was omitted; as such, the effective area-to-
 mass calculated below is a conservative case.


               Table 3 - Area-to-Mass Ratio of MINAS Satellites in Various Mission Scenarios

                                                                           Effective Area/Mass Ratio
     Scenario                       Description                                      (m2/kg)

                                                                 Nominal Mass 4.5 kg        Maximum Mass 6 kg2

Operational,             ▪   Spacecraft pointing, position
Nominal                      is nominal, operational                     0.0290                     0.0217
                         ▪   Solar arrays deployed

Operational,             ▪   Spacecraft pointing, position
Partial Deploy               is nominal, operational                     0.0194                     0.0146
Failure                  ▪   1 of 2 solar arrays deployed

ADCS Nonfunctional       ▪   Spacecraft tumbling
Fully Deployed               randomly                                    0.0201                     0.0151
                         ▪   Both solar panels deployed

ADCS Nonfunctional       ▪   Spacecraft tumbling
Partially Deployed           randomly                                    0.0140                     0.0105
                         ▪   1 of 2 solar panel deployed




 1
  See Application of Spire Global, Inc., File No. SAT-AMD-20161114-00107, Orbital Debris Assessment Report: 100 LEMUR-
 2 Phase IB and IC Satellites, Exhibit C (filed Nov. 14, 2016).
 2
  As mentioned, MINAS satellites will have capacity to add up to 1.5kg of total mass in the accommodation of new Spire
 or hosted payload(s). This orbital debris assessment evaluates lifetime and collision risk with both the nominal and
 maximum possible mass configurations. Surface area and spacecraft specifications are otherwise identical.



                                                          11


Satellite                ▪    Spacecraft tumbling
Nonfunctional                 randomly                              0.0082 for 5 years          0.0061 for 5 years
                         ▪    No solar panels deployed              0.0201 thereafter3          0.0151 thereafter3




 Table 4 below shows the simulated orbital dwell time for a MINAS satellite in a number of potential orbits
 and configurations, including a worst-case scenario of 650 km, 98 degrees.




 3
  This calculation conservatively assumes that the solar panels do not deploy in the first 5 years and that deployment
 only occurs after nylon burn wire degrades in natural sunlight (i.e., double-fault situation). See infra note *.



                                                            12


                                                    Table 4 – Orbit Dwell Time for MINAS Satellites in Representative Low-Earth Orbits4

                                                              Nominal Mass (4.5 kg)                                                             Maximum Mass (6 kg)


                                    Effective                                                                        Effective
                Spacecraft                        400 km,      450 km,     500 km,     600 km,       650 km,                         400 km,       450 km,     500 km,       600 km,       650 km,
                                   Area/Mass                                                                        Area/Mass
             Operational State                    51.6 deg      98 deg      98 deg      98 deg        98 deg                         51.6 deg       98 deg      98 deg        98 deg        98 deg
                                     (m2/kg)                                                                          (m2/kg)


            Satellite
                                     0.0082         2.5          3.3         4.4         10.7*         19.7*          0.0061            2.7          3.6           5           12.2*        21.8*
            Nonfunctional


            ADCS
            Nonfunctional,           0.0140          2           2.8         3.6         8.14*        18.01*          0.0105            2.3           3            4           12.2*        21.8*
            Partial Deploy


            ADCS
            Nonfunctional, Fully     0.0201         1.6          2.6         3.2          5.7          14.7           0.0151           1.97          2.8          3.5           7.2          16.8
            Deployed


            Operational,                            1.6          2.6         3.2          5.8          14.9           0.0146             2           2.8          3.5           7.5          17.2
                                     0.0194
            Partial Deploy


            Operational,                             1           2.4         2.9          4.8           7.5           0.0217            1.4          2.5          3.1           5.5          14.2
                                     0.0290
            Nominal




* To ensure Spire exceeds the NASA standard in all scenarios, Spire has included a double fault-tolerant solar panel deployment mechanism, which will provide sufficient surface area and drag to comply
with the NASA standard even if the MINAS satellites are dead on arrival. These MINAS satellite’s solar panels are part of a built-in, post-deployment sequence programmed into onboard software prior to
launch, which requires no direction from the ground. If for some reason the onboard sequence fails, solar array deployment can be commanded from the ground. If a MINAS satellite is non-communicative,
an entirely passive, redundant fail-safe is included on all MINAS satellites in the form of a burn wire. The tensile strength of the burn wire has been tested and verified to degrade to a breaking point after
3600 hours or 150 days of UV radiation exposure. Spire’s worst-case scenario for dwell time above conservatively models 5 years of non-deployed solar panels and no loss of altitude during those 5 years,
followed by the dwell times for an Attitude Determination and Control System (“ADCS”) nonfunctional satellite, even though a non-deployed solar panel MINAS would still have some surface area that would
cause some loss of altitude during that period. As such, the scenario is a conservative worst-case one.


                                                                                                      13


Identification of systems required for post-mission disposal: None

Plan for spacecraft maneuvers required for post-mission disposal: N/A

Calculation of final area-to-mass Ratio if atmospheric reentry not selected: N/A




Assessment of Spacecraft Compliance with Requirements 4.6-1 through
4.6-4:

4.6-1, Disposal for space structures passing through low-Earth orbit (“LEO”):       COMPLIANT

     All satellites will reenter the atmosphere within 25 years of launch

4.6-2, Disposal for space structures passing through geostationary orbit (“GEO”):   N/A

4.6-3, Disposal for space structures between LEO and GEO:                           N/A

4.6-4, Reliability of post-mission disposal operations:                             N/A




                                                          14


ODAR Section 7: Assessment of Spacecraft Reentry Hazards
NASA DAS was used to test the major spacecraft components for re-entry hazards. The major
components tested included the following.

    •   Solar panels and cells
    •   GPS antennas
    •   PCB circuit boards
    •   Primary structure
    •   Reaction wheel assembly

Summary of objects expected to survive an uncontrolled reentry (using DAS 2.0.2 software): None

Calculation of probability of human casualty for expected reentry year and inclination: 0%

Assessment of spacecraft compliance with Requirement 4.7-1:

4.7-1, Casualty risk from reentry debris:                        COMPLIANT




ODAR Section 7A: Assessment of Spacecraft Hazardous
Materials
Summary of hazardous materials contained on spacecraft: None




                                                 15


ODAR Section 8: Assessment for Tether Missions
Type of tether: N/A

Description of tether system: N/A

Determination of minimum size of object that will cause the tether to be severed: N/A

Tether mission plan, including duration and post-mission disposal: N/A

Probability of tether colliding with large space objects: N/A

Probability of tether being severed during mission or after post-mission disposal: N/A

Maximum orbital lifetime of a severed tether fragment: N/A




Assessment of compliance with Requirement 4.8-1:


4.8-1, Collision hazards of space tethers:              N/A




                                                   16



Document Created: 2030-04-27 00:00:00
Document Modified: 2030-04-27 00:00:00

© 2019 FCC.report
This site is not affiliated with or endorsed by the FCC